India (Hindustan)

india - indian flag

India, officially the Republic of India, is in South Asia. India is the seventh-largest country by area and the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the biggest democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, India shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives in addition, India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The Indian economy is the world’s tenth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies it is considered a newly industrialized country. India, has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks ninth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 29 states and 7 union territories. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and a multi-ethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four religions—Sikhism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism—originated here, whereas Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also helped shape the region’s diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom after Indian Rebellion of 1857, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.

National symbols
Flag Tricolour
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
Anthem Jana Gana Mana
Song Vande Mataram
Currency indian rupee symbol(Indian rupee)
Calendar Saka
Game Not declared
Flower Lotus
Fruit Mango
Tree Banyan
Bird Indian Peafowl
Land animal Tiger
Aquatic animal River Dolphin
River Ganga or Ganges

Republic of India

Capital New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E
Largest city Mumbai
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National language None
Demonym Indian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic
 – President Pranab Mukherjee
 – Vice President Mohammad Hamid Ansari
 – Prime Minister Narendra Modi (BJP)
 – Chief Justice H. L. Dattu
 – Speaker of the House Sumitra Mahajan (BJP)
Legislature Parliament of India
 – Upper house Rajya Sabha
 – Lower house Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom
 – Dominion 15 August 1947
 – Republic 26 January 1950
Area
 – Total 3,287,590 km2  (7th)
1,269,346 sq mi
 – Water (%) 9.6
Population
 – 2011 census 1,210,193,422 (2nd)
 – Density 381.2/km2 (31st)
987.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 – Total $7.277 trillion (3rd)
 – Per capita $5,777 (125th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 – Total $2.048 trillion (10th)
 – Per capita $1,626(145th)
Gini (2010) 33.9
medium · 79th
HDI (2013)  0.586
medium · 135th
Currency Indian rupee (indian rupee symbol) (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
 – Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+05:30)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Drives on the left
Calling code +91
ISO 3166 code IN
Internet TLD .in

Geography

map of india

 India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying on top of Indian tectonic plate, and part of the Indo-Australian Plates.India’s defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern super continent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east.Simultaneously, the vast Tethynoceanic crust, to its northeast, began to sub-duct under the Eurasian plate. These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth’s mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas. Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment[114] and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.

The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east. To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats,  the plateau contains the country’s oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44′ and 35° 30′ north latitude and 68° 7′ and 97° 25′ east longitude.

 The Kedar Range of the Greater Himalayas rises behind Kedarnath Temple (Indian state of Uttarakhand), which is one of the twelve jyotirlingashrines.

India’s coastline measures 7,517 kilometers (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometers (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometers (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains. According to the Indian naval hydro-graphic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi, the latter’s extremely low gradient often leads to severe floods and course changes.Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal, and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into theArabian Sea.Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh. India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India’s south-western coast and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.

The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons. The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India’s rainfall.Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montage.

States

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jammu and Kashmir
  11. Jharkhand
  12. Karnataka
  13. Kerala
  14. Madhya Pradesh
  15. Maharashtra
  16. Manipur
  17. Meghalaya
  18. Mizoram
  19. Nagaland
  20. Odisha
  21. Punjab
  22. Rajasthan
  23. Sikkim
  24. Tamil Nadu
  25. Telangana
  26. Tripura
  27. Uttar Pradesh
  28. Uttarakhand
  29. West Bengal

Union territories

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry

Credit: Wikipedia

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